Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Genetically Modified Foods - Research Paper Example Despite this, the development of these foods has met sharp critics from various stakeholders in the field of agriculture and medicine, and this has resulted to legal debates in parliaments of various countries, United States of America included. In the production of genetically modified foods, scientists usually select desirable genes from crops, combine them and come out with crops that are more superior in regard to disease and pest attack, as well as production. This is contrary to traditional food reproduction technology, in which unrelated crops were used. The cliche in the technology, as argued by opponents is based on the idea that recombining inter-species genes do not have ways of evaluating the potential threats and long-term effects on the consumption of genetically modified foods by living organisms. Since food affects each and every one of us, the discussion on food safety is of great importance to all humankind, and thus proper evaluation of both thee merits and demerit s associated with the technology is necessary. This essay seeks to outline the merits and demerits of genetically modified foods, and argue that the merits outweigh the demerits, and thus production of foods using this technology should be encouraged. Advantages of genetically modified foods To adapt to the technology of GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s, consumers need to be well informed on all aspects of the food starting from its production to preparation and consumption. In this regard, the consumers also need to be informed on the nutrition levels of different foods in order to ensure they purchase and consume foods that meet their health requirements. Opponents argue that GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s harm other organisms, human included; the recombination of genes may at times be ineffective and lead to the production of poisonous foods, which when consumed can be fatal. This is contrary to the current standards as all genetically food are tested against health standards before being released to the market. In t he production of genetically modified foods, the recombination of genes is strived to ensure that the crops are less exposed to pest and disease attacks. This is beneficial to the farmers as it reduces their cost of production and consequently increase yields and return. Therefore, the farmers can use the saved money in meeting other economic demands, which is also necessary for the economic development of a country (Skinner and Liang 12-78). On this point, opponent base their argument on the taste of foods and argue that genetically modified food have bad taste in comparison to natural foods. Although the taste of foods affects the appetitive of an individual, the nutritional value of the food is more important and thus their argument does not hold sound ground for an argument. Our ecology is very important in ensuring that all life of living organisms is sustained, and chemical components usually affect our ecology by tampering with the water systems as well as the exposure to che micals, which have adverse effects on humans, as well as animals (Shepard 34). Through the production of genetically modified foods, fewer chemicals are used, and this ensures that humans are less exposed to chemical hazards, as well as our environment remains unpolluted. Opponents argue that since genetically modified food are not good for human consumption, their production may lead to cross-pollination thus making it hard to identify genetically modified foods. Drought and other natural disasters have become a common occurrence in the recent past, and this has led to various organizations across the world striving to innovate new means of producing high yields in crop production
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Sociology, Germov and Smith Introduction We often think of theory as somehow divorced from reality, but we actually make use of theories every day of our lives (Germov 2009, p. 25). In this assignment I will examine two theoretical perspectives. I will then discuss their similarities and differences in their approach to studying health and illness. I then aim to discover which perspective has greater contemporary relevance in todays society. The two theoretical perspectives I have chosen to investigate a structural functionalism and symbolic interactionism. I chose these two perspectives as I am interested in finding more information about them both, I would like to discover more information about how they relate to health and what perspective is has more relevance today. According to Germov (2009, pp. 26) A theory is an explanation of how things work and why things happen. They allow us to make sense of our world by showing us how certain facts are connected to one another to show us the answers to the how and why questions of life (Germov 2009, p. 26). Germov (2009, pp. 26) states: A theory attempts to simplify reality and generalise its common and related features relevant to the topic at hand. The sheer variety of social life and the diversity of human behaviour mean that there is no single sociological theory of everything. Many social theories have been developed over the years. There are seven main theoretical perspectives including structural functionalism, Marxism, Weberianism, symbolic interaction, feminism, contemporary modernism and post-structure/postmodernism (Germov 2009, p. 27). However I have chosen to only investigate two of these theories, functionalism and symbolic interactionism. Functionalism is the oldest and dominant theoretical perspective in sociology (McClelland, 2000). The key theorists for this perspective are Emile Durkeim and Robert Merton (Germov 2009, p. 27). Emile Durkheimis considered to be the father of sociology. He is credited with making sociology a science, and having made it part of the French academic curriculum as Science Sociale. Emile Durkheim gave many lectures, and published an impressive number of sociological studies during his lifetime. His lectures and studies were on subjects such as religion, suicide, and all aspects of society (emile-durkheim.com 2002). This perspective is built upon twin emphases: application of the scientific method to the objective social world and use of an analogy between the individual organism and society (McClelland, 2000). It studies the way social structures function to maintain stability and social order (Germov 2009, p. 27). Summary Structural-functionalism is a consensus theory, meaning that it sees society as built upon order, interrelation, and balance among parts as a means of maintaining the smooth functioning of the whole. Structural-Functionalism views shared standards and values as the basis of society, focuses on social order based on unspoken agreements between groups, and views social change as occurring in a slow and orderly fashion (Unc.edu 2004). Functionalists accept that change is sometimes necessary to correct social dysfunctions, but that it must occur slowly so that people and institutions can adapt without confusion (Unc.edu 2004). Structural Functionalism has made a number of main assumptions which focus on several levels of analysis society, community, individual and social unit. The assumptions include that societies and social units such as families and organisations are held together by orderliness and cooperation, societies work best when they function smoothly as an organism and that the system may be static or involved in an ordered process of change. Another assumption made by structural functionalism is that the nature of one part of the system has an impact on the form that the other parts can take. Also those external environments adapt to each other and more (Unc.edu 2004). Functionalism focuses on the MACRO level, meaning it looks at large-scale social institutions like society compared to looking at international networks such as the government. Structural functionalism pays little attention to individual agency and personality development. The functionalist analysis of health care has been mainly influenced by Talcott Parsons. He viewed the health of individuals as a necessary condition of a stable and ordered society. He conceived illness as a form of deviance meaning he viewed it as stopping people from carrying out various social roles which were essential to the functioning in society (Germov 2009, p. 30). In other words, when you are sick you are not being a productive member of society. The general idea is that the individual who has fallen ill is not only physically sick, but now adheres to the social role of being sick. The pathway to health was achieved through the sick role. Being Sick is not just a state of fact or condition, it contains customary rights and obligations based on the social norms that surround it. The theory outlined two rights of a sick person, the sick person is exempt from normal social roles and the sick person is not responsible for their condition. The obligations are that the sick person should try to get well and that the sick person should seek technically competent help and cooperate with the medical professional (Millon, Blaney Davis 1999, p. 446). An example of this is that students often have to supply a medical certificate to support their case for not performing their students roles of not turning up to class or submitting work on time. Symbolic interactionism is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. This perspective has a long intellectual history, beginning with the German sociologist and economist, Max Weber and the American philosopher, George H. Mead, both of whom emphasised the subjective meaning of human behaviour, the social process, and pragmatism (McClelland 2000). According to Smith (2001): Max Weber was born in 1864 and looked at sociology in terms of it being an extensive science of social action and in the beginning he would only focus on specific social contexts. Somewhat in contrast to this belief, he later believed that one of the most distinguishing characteristics of a society is their change or shift in motivation that is caused by structural or historical forces. Symbolic interactionists focus on agency and how people construct, give meaning and interpret their behaviour through interaction with others (Germov 2009, p. 33). The main assumption is that humans create reality through their actions and the meanings they give to them. Therefore, society is the cumulative effect of human action, interaction, and interpretation, and these are more significant that social structures, hence the focus of the perspective (Germov 2009, p. 33). For interactionists, humans are pragmatic actors who continually must adjust their behaviour to the actions of other individuals. We can adjust to these actions only because we are able to interpret them. Germov (2009, p. 33) states: Symbolic interationism provides a theoretical bridge between sociology and psychology by concentrating on a small-scale interaction and how this impacts on individuals identity or image of themselves. An example of the quote above is when someone is to receive a compliment regularly such as you are attractive and intelligent the reaction can impact on what you believe and how you behave. In contrast to functionalism which focuses on the MACRO level, symbolic interationism focuses on the MICRO theories meaning it looks more on individuals and their everyday interactions with others and small-scale social groups and organisations (Unc.edu 2004). Symbolic interactionism emphasises that health and illness are social constructions that vary over time and change between cultures. Meaning that what is considered an illness is socially defined and passes through a social lens that reflects the culture, politics, and morality of a particular society and a certain point in time (Germov 2009, p. 33). Therefore an illness in one culture may be considered a wellness in another culture. Also now in the 21st century a plump woman would be considered healthy where as a thin woman would most likely be seen as unhealthy (Anderson Taylor, p. 540). Both functionalism and symbolic interactionism are sociological theories. There are a wide variety of sociological theories which can be grouped together according to various criteria. One of the most important of these is the distinction between structural or macro perspectives and social action or micro perspectives. These perspectives are different as they approach the analysis of society in different measures. Functionalism is an example of a macro perspective because it analyses the way society as a whole fits together whereas symbolic interactionism is a micro perspective as it stresses the meaningfulness of human behaviour and denies that it is primarily determined by the structure of society (Langhoff 2002). I believe that the perspective with the most contemporary relevance is structural functionalism. Parsons views are correct in saying that the health of individuals is a necessary condition of a stable and ordered society. The sick role ask people to supply evidence when not being able to perform their normal social role. This has contemporary relevance as for example, in todays society if people are unable to work they are to supply a doctors certificate to prove they were deemed unfit to work and contribute to society. This is because as according to Parsons, illness disrupts the normal functioning of society; therefore it is important that the sick are encouraged to seek expert help so that they can return to performing their social role (Germov 2009, p. 30). Conclusion Furthermore, functionalism has contemporary relevance because of the rights and obligations stated before are true when discussing society today. If people are sick they are exempt from normal social roles and they are usually not responsible for their condition. The obligations are also true as when sick, it is looked upon that if the sick person is unable to perform their social role they should try to get well and that the sick person should seek expert help and cooperate with the medical professional. After investigating the theories of functionalism and symbolic interactionism it is clear that functionalism has more contemporary relevance in society today. However over time social theories change as society itself changes and new knowledge, ideas and capabilities emerge (Germov 2009, p. 39). Bessants and Watts 1999 study (cited in Germov 2009, p. 38) state that sociologists constantly hover between and in and out of different traditions, and specific social theories are not as neat or coherence as grouping then into theoretical perspectives implies. This meaning that sociologists tend to include a range of perspectives into a specific theory. This essay has focused on sex and gender and the nature vs. nurture concept and in doing so as assessed Freuds notion of anatomy is destiny. After gaining an understanding of the concepts associated with the nature vs. nurture concept it can be suggested through research that there is no evidence to prove that one concept is of greater significance to the development of a child. In saying this it can be concluded that Freuds notion of anatomy is destiny is still relevant today in society, however is not the underlying factor that contributes to the development of a child. It can now be suggested that although the nature theory is always going to contribute to the development of a child, more research is suggesting and offering evidence to believe that the nurture theory contributes significantly to the development of a child.
Friday, October 25, 2019
A Consumer's Buying Behavior A consumer's buyer behavior is influenced by four major factors; cultural, social, personal, and psychological factors. These factors cause consumers to develop product and brand preferences. Although many of these factors cannot be directly controlled by marketers, understanding of their impact is essential as marketing mix strategies can be developed to appeal to the preferences of the target market. When purchasing any product, a consumer goes through a decision process. This process consists of up to five stages; problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision and post purchase behavior. The length of this decision process will vary, ranging from a shorter routine response behavior, to limited problem solving and a more comprehensive extensive problem solving. A consumer may not act in isolation in the purchase, but rather may be influenced by any of several people in various roles. The number of people involved in the buying decision increases with the level of involvement and complexity of the buying decision behavior. Consumers buyer behavior and the resulting purchase decision is strongly influenced by cultural, social, personal and psychological characteristics. An understanding of the influence of these factors is essential for marketers in order to develop suitable marketing mixes to appeal to the target customer. CULTURAL factors include a consumers culture, subculture and social c...
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Appearance vs. Reality is a prominent theme in The Crucible as some people are carried and blinded by appearance while others actually look at the facts, John Proctor and Elizabeth are not carried away by lies while Abigail and the rest of her friends are ignorant and spread lies. The town of Salem, Massachusetts went through a yearlong period of witch trials. A group of girls led by Abigail the reverendÃ¢â¬â¢s niece manipulated the people of Salem to make them believe that witchcraft was happening in Salem. It began with Mrs. Puttman wanting Tituba to conjure up spirits of her dead babies, Abigail and her cousin Betty joined in along with other girls. Ã¢â¬Å"She always sings her Barbados songs, and we dance.Ã¢â¬ (Act1 line102)This is when she is trying to explain to her uncle what was actually going on in the woods. They were caught by Parris, Betty became sick and the girls decided that they were going to convince everyone this was witchcraft. This led to Abigail spreading rumo rs about people she did not like in the town. Ã¢â¬Å"We must tell the truth Abby!Ã¢â¬ (Act1 line 318) this was Mary Warren trying to convince Abby to tell the truth. It appeared that Elizabeth was committing witchcraft because of the voodoo doll found in her house when Cheever went to her house to arrest her. Ã¢â¬Å"TisÃ¢â¬â¢ hard proof?(To Hale)I find here a poppet Goody Proctor keeps. I have found it, sir.(Act2 lines 812) Marry Warren told her she was mentioned in court but not yet accused and she attempted to clear her name but clearly failed. She knew that Abigail just wanted to get rid of Elizabeth because she wanted John for herself. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a bitter woman, a lying, cold, sniveling womanÃ¢â¬ (Act1 line138) Abby was bitter that Elizabeth had fired her from the job but it was all AbbyÃ¢â¬â¢s fault as she was getting to close to John. She needed Elizabeth in jail or killed for that to happen. So Abigail started the rumor that Elizabeth was doing witch craft on her. Ã¢â¬Å"Why Abigail Williams charge her.Ã¢â¬ (Act2 lines753) and that the voodoo doll was for her, she even went as far as stabbing herself with a needle. Ã¢â¬Å"And in the belly of the poppet a needleÃ¢â¬â¢s stuck.Ã¢â¬ (Act2 Lines813) Mrs. Putman is also adding to the fire of the hysteria, she brings up her even dead babies heÃ makes a big deal to reverend Hale Ã¢â¬Å"They were murdered, Mr. Parris! And mark this proof! Mark it! Last might my Ruth were ever so close to their little spiritsÃ¢â¬ (Act1 lines232) She wants everyone to believe it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a coincidence all but one of her babies died. And now Betty is sick and so she is blaming it on an unholy cause. She is representing the appearance of things. The reality is Ruth is faking being sick and maybe she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t making healthy babies, enough for them to be alive and well. Another example of appearance vs. reality is when john proctor finally gives in and admits he is a witch, he goes to the court. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s only playinÃ¢â¬â¢ you! He means to hang us all!Ã¢â¬ (Act3lines 382) He realizes that the truth will set you free he confessed but later took it back because he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want his name soiled in the town Ã¢â¬Å"I have given you my soul; leave me my name!Ã¢â¬ (Act4 lines728) He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want his children to grow up having a father with a soiled name a blackened name. He prefers to be hung rather than lie to keep his life. In conclusion Appearance and reality are too different things it is one thing to see something but another to understand it. Appearance is never enough you must know the facts before jumping to conclusions. Most of the town would be better of knowing this lesson before they got carried away with silly stories made up by bored teenagers. They should look at the facts before getting carried away with appearance.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
For many years, people have invented new technology equipment which became part of our lives. With existence of technology, people tend to depend on modern machines like smartphone, laptop, television and others. Moreover, the sharp development of technology has extremely expressed the humanÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence and creativity. Thanks to technology, everything becomes easier, more convenient and enjoyable for us. However, the matter is whether or not we use these technology efficiently. This essay will tell you more about advantages and disadvantages of technology Once upon a time, people did everything by their own hands. They washed clothes beside the rivers, cooked meals by firing wood, walked on foot from one place to others. At that time, the communication was so limited and inconvenient. People who were far from each other were difficult to connect. Nonetheless, technology appeared and obviously changed the whole world so far. Technology apparently has become part of our lives since it brought large benefits to us in communication, entertainment, business, educationÃ¢â¬ ¦.It appeared to make peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ matters easier, to save time, to bring people closer and closer. In the past, a woman was always busy with the housework, taking care of children, cooking for meal manually. Contrarily, nowadays everything becomes faster and easier with the support of washing-machine, microwave, television and many technical equipment. Instead of spending more than hour only in order to wash clothes by hands, they save time and energy by putting it into machine and doing other stuff. With microwaves, you just spend few minutes even few seconds for a meal. Thus, with much developed technology, you can save times and feel like you have more than 24 hours a day. With smart phone and internet, we are able to talk and see our friends and relatives who living far from us and feel like they are beside us. Moreover, the development of digital technology helps people not only expand relationships over the world but also learn more new things. With a laptop connected to the internet, we can easily find information from many sources and relax with many online games or music. It is also so amazing that we can find our old friends through social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and share information to any part of the world only milliseconds. The communication becomes cheaper and more convenient thanks to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ great inventions. Especially, we must consider how effective technology can help work. AmountÃ of modern applications and devices help people easily manage their work and their time such as take-note schedule, remind tasks and important events. In the past, we took at least two or three days to send a letter to another place. Now we can send an email just by click Ã¢â¬Å"sendÃ¢â¬ , it takes only few seconds. Moreover, some people also might choose to work at home and j ust connect with other by network. Even though technology brought us many advantages, have people utilized it as efficient way? It will be negative effort if we abuse of it too much. Unfortunately, almost every one of us are depending on modern equipment and not realizing the unpredictable consequences. While people are able to talk with their friends who are far from us, they may have difficulty in communicating with others around them. They are more comfortable with hiding behind the screens rather than talking face to face. It is actually sad to say that we are becoming less social interaction and insensitive to each other. Young people tend to be alone and passive with smartphone, laptop and uncommunicative to people around them. With state-of-the-art devices, we work more efficiently than before. However, there are also some drawbacks. Abusing of technology might make us become a machine: work, work and work. Some firm owners try to extend more time work and employees probably become workaholic because of the benefit and convenient devices. Businessmen tend to bring work to home and no more time watching TV with their children and family. Obviously, their wives and children extremely donÃ¢â¬â¢t like that. Moreover, life of people are under the heavy threat by internet crimes. Exploiting the development of social networks or computer tricks, they steal information, documents from other device. More dangerous, they also rape the young girls who have the habit check in on Facebook, Instagram or kidnap children for a ransom. Therefore, the more developed of technology also internet, the more dangerous people have to face with. Every part of our daily life is almost related to technology and its development continuously satisfy our demands. Unfortunately, our dependence on technology currently is too much, it is considerably alarming. The impact of technology on our lives can be devastating if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t keep ourselves in check Technology is like a coin which has both positive and negative sides. We should decide and choose how to use it. The advantages of technology areÃ very helpful for people if we use it right, it will be effective to our lives and society. Nobody can deny positively development of technology, but it must be the positive developed and shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any negative affected in present or future. Comments: Good argument, perhaps you guys can add more argument about using technology, because I saw no clear argument about it. Does people today really using technology effectively? You can write also about the crime using technology. For example: People who rape young girl who they knew from facebook. (Renitha Ã¢â¬â 02910116) Interesting topic with good explanations and examples. Although there are some unclear parts but in the end, readers can get the points. There are some grammatical and colloquial errors, hope you can put on more attention on it. Overall, this is a fine essay (Danny Ã¢â¬â 02911741)